Irrigation may be defined as the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crop. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and re-vegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. The water source for irrigation may be lake, river, spring, well or snow pack. Depending on the distance of source and seasonal rainfall the water may be channeled directly to agricultural fields or stored in reservoirs for later use.
Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growing in grain fields and helping in preventing soil consolidation. Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining.
Ground Water Development Ground water is important source for irrigation and drinking. Variant Infratech projects make the best use of surface and underground water resources. Minor irrigation schemes are based on ground water and are important for agricultural development.
Dam & Reservoirs Surface water is stored in dams and reservoirs for ultimate use in irrigation, hydropower and water supply. It also reduces the flood fury.
Variant Infratech provides expertise in projects related to dams and reservoir engineering using concrete, masonry and earth/rockfill dams. Due emphasis is given to the safety using state-of-the-art technology in designing the dams and reservoirs.
Variant Infratech's expertise encompasses irrigation techniques which differ on how the water is obtained from the source and distributed with in the field based on requirement. It includes
• Overhead / Sprinkler Irrigation Sprinkler Irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to rainfall. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the air and irrigated entire soil surface through spray heads so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground.
• Centre Pivot Irrigation Commonly used for flat terrain - It is an overhead irrigation equipment consisting of galvanized Steel/ Aluminium pipes joined together and supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers positioned along its length. The system moves in a circular pattern and is fed with water from the center.
• Drip Irrigation Water is delivered at the root of the plant drop by drop. Lower water pressures are needed and this is most efficient method of irrigation.
• Irrigation Canals Irrigation Canals are man-made channels for water- Water from dams & reservoirs is distributed in fields through irrigation canals. Variant Infratech constructs primary, secondary and tertiary canals for irrigation and also carries out CC lining of the same.